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Results of the first metal composition test


Yao SongYi

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很不幸计划延迟了,因为疫情一直拖到8月20日才完工。

最终化验结果没什么特别的,但是可以得出一些结论。

1.成分和耐磨性能没有绝对的对等关系,含有铱锇铂铱粒的耐磨性能并不绝对是最好的。(或者说金属晶相和金属粘合剂的作用更大)

2.盲目猜测铱粒成分是不应该的,我自己在结果得出后也发现自己犯了这个毛病,我一直以为百乐铱粒含铱锇。

 

部分铱粒成分不方便公开,故用主量、次量、粘合剂、添加剂代替。

 

德产

凌美 狩猎者 Z50(老款):钨主量 钌次量 镍粘合剂

凌美 狩猎者 Z50(新款):钨主量 钌次量 镍粘合剂 钯添加剂(或镀层污染)

凌美2000(老款):钨主量 钌次量 镍粘合剂

检测出2%-5%左右铜锌

 

 

美产

70-80年代犀飞利铱粒(日本库存):铱主量 锇主量 钌次量 铂粘合剂(存疑,可能与百乐铱粒混淆)

检测出1.4%-3%左右氧

 

 

日产

写乐21k铱粒(年份代码702):钨主量 钌次量 镍粘合剂

检测出1%左右铜

写乐21k铱粒(年份代码19E):钨主量 钌次量 镍粘合 铑添加剂

检测出10%-20%左右金 应为镀层污染

检测出微量硅

百乐74铱粒(年份代码P919):钨主量 钌次量 钴粘合剂

百乐78G铱粒(年份代码611):钨主量 钌次量 

检测出少量铜金 应为镀层污染

百乐78G铱粒(年份代码915):钨主量 钌次量 钴粘合剂(同74配比基本一致)

70-80年代百乐铱粒(日本库存):钌主量 铑次量 钨次量 钴粘合剂(存疑,可能于犀飞利铱粒混淆)

部分采样点有微量铝铬铁铜锌 应为烧结污染

 

 

Unfortunately, the plan was delayed, because the epidemic was delayed until August 20 before completion.

 

The final test results are nothing special, but some conclusions can be drawn.

 

1. There is no absolute reciprocal relationship between composition and wear resistance, and the wear resistance of iridium osmium platinum iridium particles is not absolutely the best.(In other words, the metal crystalline phase and the metal binder are more closely related to wear resistance)

 

2. Blindly guessing about the composition of iridium particles is not appropriate. I also found myself guilty of this problem after the results were obtained. I always thought that Pilot iridium particles contained iridium osmium.

 

 

 

It is not convenient to disclose the components of some iridium particles, so the main quantity, secondary quantity, binder, and additives are used instead.

 

 

 

German production

 

LAMY Z50 (old model): Tungsten main quantity, ruthenium secondary quantity, nickel binder

 

LAMY Z50 (new model): Tungsten main quantity, ruthenium secondary quantity, nickel binder, palladium additive (or plating pollution)

 

LAMY 2000 (old model): tungsten main content, ruthenium secondary content, nickel binder

 

Detected about 2%-5% copper and zinc

 

 

 

 

 

U.S. production

 

70-80's Sheaffer's iridium (Japanese stock): iridium main content, osmium main content, ruthenium secondary content, platinum binder (suspect, may be confused with Pilot iridium)

 

About 1.4%-3% oxygen detected

 

 

 

 

 

Japan production

 

Sailor 21k iridium grain (year code 702): tungsten main content, ruthenium secondary content, nickel binder

 

About 1% copper detected

 

Sailor 21k iridium grain (year code 19E): tungsten main content, ruthenium minor content ,nickel bonding, rhodium additive

 

About 10%-20% of gold detected should be plating contamination

 

Trace silicon detected

 

Pilot 74 iridium particles (year code P919): tungsten main content, ruthenium secondary content, cobalt binder

 

Pilot 78G iridium grains (year code 611): the main quantity of tungsten and the secondary quantity of ruthenium

 

A small amount of copper and gold detected should be plating contamination

 

Pilot 78G iridium particles (year code 915): the main amount of tungsten, the secondary amount of ruthenium, and the cobalt binder (basically the same ratio as 74)

 

Pilot iridium grains (Japanese inventory) in the 1970s and 1980s: ruthenium main quantity, rhodium secondary quantity, tungsten secondary quantity, cobalt binder (suspect, may be confused with Sheaffer's iridium granules)

 

There are traces of aluminum, chromium, iron, copper and zinc in some sampling points, which should be sintering pollution

 

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I'd be interested in seeing what's in Pelikan (400-1000), and in the MB 146 and 149 tipping material.  The tipping on MB nibs seems to be harder than any other manufacturer's material.

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46 minutes ago, Ron Z said:

我很想看看百利金 (400-1000) 以及 MB 146 和 149 的接装材料中的内容。MB 笔尖上的小费似乎比任何其他制造商的材料都难。

Yes, they will be announced in the second batch

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1 hour ago, hari317 said:

好的。 

Heraeus has completed the test, but it is suspected that Heraeus has electroplated a layer of rhodium on the iridium grains and is going to test it again with a polished nib.

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4 hours ago, Yao SongYi said:

tungsten main content, ruthenium secondary content

 

Interesting.  Tungsten rhenium alloys are common, but I haven't come across tungsten ruthenium.

 

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2 hours ago, Yao SongYi said:

Heraeus has completed the test, but it is suspected that Heraeus has electroplated a layer of rhodium on the iridium grains and is going to test it again with a polished nib.

Heraeus made the test? I thought you made the test. Thank you for publishing. Which analysis method had been used? Do you think that there are real melting phases or only sintering conglomerates?

Kind Regards

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Even interesting to us with A&E problems.

 

There was a 1920-30's article here on the com with what basically tungsten & rare earth compounds were used by a few US pen makers. What I found interesting was that those compounds were changed almost every year it seemed. Or every other year.

In reference to P. T. Barnum; to advise for free is foolish, ........busybodies are ill liked by both factions.

 

 

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6 hours ago, Kaweco said:

Heraeus made the test? I thought you made the test. Thank you for publishing. Which analysis method had been used? Do you think that there are real melting phases or only sintering conglomerates?

Kind Regards

He probably means he has completed testing the Heraeus tipping too. The tipping balls have a protective coating applied by Heraeus. 

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9 hours ago, Kaweco said:

贺利氏做了测试?我以为你通过了测试。感谢您的发布。使用了哪种分析方法?您认为存在真正的熔化阶段还是仅存在烧结团块?

亲切的问候

Unfortunately, I did not do a more detailed metallographic analysis. I just tested the composition and magnified the surface of the iridium grains with an electron microscope. Some Chinese iridium osmium grains, antique Pilot, and Sheaffer all showed pure sintering rather than fusion. Heraeus is currently showing fusion, but we suspect that there is a rhodium coating on the surface, in order to prevent oxidation or to facilitate welding with the nib, which is not available in previous experience and needs further analysis.

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@Yao SongYi, thank you for the data update.

 

The method used is of importance - was it a pure surface analysis (like e- or X-ray analysis) or a dissolution and spectroscopy method (AAS, ICP, etc.)?

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21 minutes ago, InesF said:

@姚松义,感谢您的数据更新。

 

所使用的方法是非常重要的-它是一个纯表面分析(像电子-或X射线分析),或溶解和光谱法(AAS,ICP等)?

The surface mass spectrometry used is more accurate than the spectroscopy. Of course, there will be errors for some light metals. By comparing a formula ball with a known composition, the error for high-content metals is currently less than 2%, which is within an acceptable range.

Because many finished nibs that cannot be damaged were selected for this test, no dissolution or other destructive methods were used for the consistency of the results.

At present, the dissolution method is used to obtain data on how many micrograms of each metal are contained in a ball, and it needs to be provided that the composition is known.

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why not use XPS and do a surface etch to get past any surface treatment if you think there is one?

San Francisco International Pen Show - The next “Funnest Pen Show” is on schedule for August 23-24-25, 2024.  Watch the show website for registration details. 
 

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1 hour ago, FarmBoy said:

如果您认为有任何表面处理,为什么不使用 XPS 并进行表面蚀刻以通过任何表面处理?

The electroplating of raw material balls is not available in previous experience, and we have not observed this in use.

In this composition test, the proportion of rhodium in the ball beads is too high, which makes us suspicious.

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