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tacitus

Hello all,


As I do not know which thread to post or how to make a blog, I started this thread. I wanted to the thread something like Updated Montblanc 149 Trends Table(my acquaintance made the chart by himself) , but, that'll be beyond my ability. Anyway, no similar thread active in Pelikan forum.

 

As I announced before (no one remembers?), I’ll describe the definite characteristics of Pelikan pens, model by model or (its) generation by generation. One of my aims is to supplement information not found or mentioned in comprehensive sites like pelikan-collectibles, and to organize and share information on Pelikan pens. I'll do it little by little.

 

My descriptions are based on my experience, personal communication including FPN, pelikan-collectibles, Pelikan Schreibgeräte (green book), pelikan official site, and so on).
 

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tacitus

Günter Wagner launched its first fountain pen with full preparations. It was just called "Pelikan fountain pen" and then "Pelikan 100". The company made several constructional and material changes in the following years. It has been much more elaborately built than I thought at first. Here, I focus on Pelikan 100s as industrial products.

 

First generation

Pelikan fountain pen (ca.1929)

 

Cap top; material: ebonite. shape: cylindrical, flat cap top end. logo: old four chicks logo on the top and “Pelikan PATENT” on the lateral side.
Cap tube; material: ebonite, shape: 2 cap holes (one pair), no bands.
Clip; shape: wider than following generations(Fig.4).
Nib; material: 14KG, shape: heart shaped hole (Fig.3), logo: “Pelikan 14 KARAT”. note: made by Montblanc.
Nib socket; material: ebonite. shape: long (17mm) (Fig.5). 
Grip section and barrel; material: one piece bakelite. shape: flat grip section end with small flat side portion. note: my pen is not so "clearly transparent" as the brochure of the time (Fig.1) and official site suggest. It seems it was bordeaux to brown bakelite right from the beginning, and has darkened over time. Now, it is hard to see though.
Sleeve (Binde); material: celluloid.
Knob unit; material: ebonite with cork seal. shape: knurled turning knob.

 

As we know, the most remarkable is its filling system. According to green book, the inner wall of the barrel is slightly conical, meaning that the lumen diameter narrows toward the knob unit, and when the cork seal is drawn back, it is pressed against the inner wall to seal off the ink. Cap sealing system is also unique, consisting of two seals(Fig.6). Cap top works as an inner cap. When the cap screwed on, flat cap top end and flat grip section end, pushed together, form a tight seal (frontal seal). Flat side portion of the grip section end is also pushed onto the lateral wall of the cap tube to form a second seal (lateral seal). As cap screwed on, air in it is vented through cap holes via the gap between cap top and cap tube (Fig.6).

 

Fig.1KIMG1177.thumb.JPG.18b9e6d7194a97bb68f84e8712d87864.jpg.b01189426cfffe1a259426a4e01678b9.jpg

 

Fig.2KIMG1154.thumb.JPG.44eec7bf23da55f6a2df21c5674b10ea.jpg.ce539d907c49de251087e413e1a2d6c7.jpg

 

Fig.3

KIMG1167.JPG.33f9bda0383182586e5bea63b97d5857.jpg.4f730be21bd455f27b6787c539c25f44.jpg

 

Fig.4

Pelikan fountain pen (left), 100 (right)

KIMG1175.JPG.7774e573bba6f8bef9884aa75075bd9c.jpg.fd2d3d6f2ae097572add85005fbf3826.jpg

 

Fig.5

Is it called exploded view in English?

 

B703B127-DB3A-44D8-9CAA-72AD40EB6BD0.thumb.jpeg.90139cbef5df9b95d14ec305b0e39d6a.jpg.1a7eb4323c98ba3a7bb680ecb9b85103.jpg

 

Fig.6KIMG1184.thumb.JPG.72f1730c82bd8c8ec67c65fa4ab553f5.jpg.e5d2f4187776b0fdd805f4036d7ecbdc.jpg

 

 

To be continued to second generation...

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Bo Bo Olson

Thanks, right now '30's are not on my radar....outside the late '30s full tortoise....as soon as the proper 6 numbers show up.

But should I ever run into something affordable, I'll know where to come to look.

 

German vintage '50-70 semi-flex stubs and those in oblique give the real thing in On Demand line variation. Modern Oblique is a waste of money for a shadow of line variation. Being too lazy to Hunt for affordable vintage oblique pens, lets you 'hunt' for line variation instead of having it.

RIP...200's once great nib, now a double ball.:crybaby::wallbash:

 

The cheapest lessons are from those who learned expensive lessons. Ignorance is best for learning expensive lessons.

 

 

 

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tacitus
Posted (edited)

Hello,

The image is the bakelite section and body I gave up repairing😞. Seemingly, it is black to dark brown, bordeaux ink window can be detected under sunlight.

2021-03-12_194318.jpg.154d98af7151dac70b752cdbc831010e.jpg

According to green book, one of the development objectives of Pelikan fountain pen was to "verify the ink supply at one glance". The original ink window might have been more "transparent" enough to see the ink through it.

 

Edited by tacitus
The image replaced.

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tacitus
Posted (edited)

Second generation

Pelikan fountain pen (ca.1930)

 

Cap top; same as the first generation
Cap tube; material: ebonite, shape: 4 cap holes (two holes facing each other), two narrow bands.
Clip; shape: narrower than the first generation.
Nib; material: 18-carat gold, shape: round hole, logo: “Pelikan 18 KARAT.” note; as stated below. 
Nib socket; same as the first generation.
Grip section and barrel; same as the first generation.
Sleeve (Binde); material: celluloid. color: olive.

Knob unit; same as the first generation.

 

The most remarkable changes were the round nib hole, the cap rings, and the added vent holes to the cap tube. The cap sealing system was same as the first generation. According to Green Book, the cap rings of the time were intended to decorate the pen rather than protect the cap lip. Montblanc introduced it in 1929 and Günter Wagner did so one year later (1930) to suit the cosumers’ taste. Additional vent holes were located 6mm under the existing ones. The inner wall of the cap was regularly stained with ink while opening and closing it. Without ventilation, condensed ink would stain the grip section. So the additional vent holes were introduced to keep dry the room between the inner wall and the grip section (Green Book)(Fig.4).

 

In 1930, 14-karat gold binde model was introduced. It was named "Pelikan Gold" (model number system was not introduced at that time) (Green Book, Pelikan official site).

 

While the nib material for the basic model was 14-carat gold, 18-carat gold nib was introduced as the export model for the French market in 1930 (Fig.3).

 

In 1930, the ring without clip section to replace the original one was offered as an option. The pen without clip was designed for ladies who carry it in their handbag.


NB: “generation” is not an official term. I just call so. Some changes in specifications were made at different time points not one time. Thus, in addition to several variations (as stated above), there might have been transient model. Actually, the model with 2 cap holes and cap rings exists (Green Book). The colors and materials of the binde are very intriguing and informative for dating.  However, they are so diverse and out of the scope of my “private research”. I don’t mention it in detail in this thread.

 

Fig.1

CIMG4799.thumb.JPG.331d144c23d5ba18c055784c2ca888ac.JPG

Fig.2

CIMG4778.thumb.jpg.2e69241f8de43a10af293ec166a43624.jpg

Fig.3

CIMG4787.jpg.4e63e72f882539f9cd78fe995c2b4c65.jpg

Fig.4

CIMG4810.thumb.jpg.c60bbe76ad16de88ce7833ec6157478e.jpg

Edited by tacitus
The description was modified.

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Thank you. Very informative.

 

That broken barrel is a nightmare! And yes, I can see the ink window.

 

If the cap rings were really just for decoration, it is a happy coincidence that they also strengthen the cap lip - which would get harsh everyday use, in this period of heavy pen usage. 

I'm sure we all have plenty of split/chipped caps  which attest to this.

 

Yes, exploded view is a good descriptive expression. Your English is excellent.

 

Thanks for all the information.

Watching with interest.

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tacitus
On 3/15/2021 at 6:47 AM, CS388 said:

Thank you. Very informative.

 

That broken barrel is a nightmare! And yes, I can see the ink window.

 

If the cap rings were really just for decoration, it is a happy coincidence that they also strengthen the cap lip - which would get harsh everyday use, in this period of heavy pen usage. 

I'm sure we all have plenty of split/chipped caps  which attest to this.

 

Yes, exploded view is a good descriptive expression. Your English is excellent.

 

Thanks for all the information.

Watching with interest.

 

Thank you for your interest in this topic and I'm happy my English is understandable.

 

As you pointed out, cap rings reinforce the cap lip. Functionally, wider ring in #400 and later models were more effective, covering the whole cap lip. In #100, narrow rings were not so protective in function, but attractive in design. In #100, two tiny rings, positioned almost in the middle of the pen when the cap closed, give an impression of "well-balanced" and "refined". This is just my opinion😘.

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Bo Bo Olson

The War pens, had an empty impressed line supposedly to prevent cracks from traveling the whole way up the cap , no  metal of any kind, and all metal was precious to war.

 

I have them in other makes.

In March of '43 all pen makers were told the last pen they could make was 1st May....or perhaps that was only May....but May was the last year German pens were made.....could also be conquered territory also.

 

What's a real pain, is I have old no names, missing the rings, and they are not worth trying to repair.

German vintage '50-70 semi-flex stubs and those in oblique give the real thing in On Demand line variation. Modern Oblique is a waste of money for a shadow of line variation. Being too lazy to Hunt for affordable vintage oblique pens, lets you 'hunt' for line variation instead of having it.

RIP...200's once great nib, now a double ball.:crybaby::wallbash:

 

The cheapest lessons are from those who learned expensive lessons. Ignorance is best for learning expensive lessons.

 

 

 

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Bo Bo Olson

Thanks...

Grumble cubed, my loose Pelikan CN nib was only regular flex, not the semi-flex or superflex some/many have.

German vintage '50-70 semi-flex stubs and those in oblique give the real thing in On Demand line variation. Modern Oblique is a waste of money for a shadow of line variation. Being too lazy to Hunt for affordable vintage oblique pens, lets you 'hunt' for line variation instead of having it.

RIP...200's once great nib, now a double ball.:crybaby::wallbash:

 

The cheapest lessons are from those who learned expensive lessons. Ignorance is best for learning expensive lessons.

 

 

 

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tacitus

ADDENDUM to Second generation

Change in Specifications to Second generation were made (or started) in 1930 (Green book); in November 1930 (pelikan-collectibles, GoPens). According to GoPens, additional vent holes were added to the cap in early 1931, which may support the existence of 2 cap holes with cap rings in earlier model. If in the latter case, my pen would be dated 1931).

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On 3/16/2021 at 2:10 PM, tacitus said:

As you pointed out, cap rings reinforce the cap lip. Functionally, wider ring in #400 and later models were more effective, covering the whole cap lip. In #100, narrow rings were not so protective in function, but attractive in design. In #100, two tiny rings, positioned almost in the middle of the pen when the cap closed, give an impression of "well-balanced" and "refined". This is just my opinion😘.

I hope this will be a long thread full of useful and relevant content that a reader who is after useful information could benfit on.

👍

It is helpful to relate personal opinions and findings to historical context, which influenced engineering of that time in two dominant ways:

  • in 1929/30 World economic crisis was shaking the industry and it is likely that engineers rather focused on things which really work than on things which look ... Perhaps, as of 1932, when world started recovering from the crisis, and Pelikan started producing “beautiful” pens for the high-end market, the aesthetic explanations would become more likely
  • the most influential school of industrial design and architecture of that time was Bauhaus, founded and long time presided by Walter Gropius, one of the “fathers” of modernistic skyscraper. Their famous aesthetic direction was “form follows function”. They were nevertheless shut down under political persecution from the Hitler regime in 1933.   https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus                  https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/826832812820491052/

Therefore I find context-free guessing about the reasonings behind engineering and manufacturing technology of the ebonite #100 cap tubes and the celluloid & steel ones of 20 years later and comparing them, with due respect, still somewhat arbitrary and inconclusive. Please, pardon my wording.

🙂

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tacitus

stoen.

Thank you for the information about the historical and industrial background with which GW developed and kept improving fountain pens. When considering "why" (in addition to "when") in dating, they will offer us a useful clue.

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tacitus


ADDENDUM to First and Second generation

 

I measured the dimensions of my pen.

 

Gen. Total Cap Barrel Barrel Barrel Cap Ink
  length length length width (1) width (2) width chamber(3)
1 118 mm 63 mm 93.5 mm 12 mm 11 mm 13 mm 1.4 ml
2 119 mm 62 mm 93 mm 11.5 mm 10.5 mm 13 mm 1.3 ml

 

(1) With sleeve

(2) Without sleeve

(3) Taking care so that air did not get into the chamber, I filled the pen with water. After unscrewing the nib unit out, I measured the water volume with a syringe.

 

As a result, the measurements were almost the same as those in ruettinger-web😅

If I had to say, the cap tube of the first generation was 1 mm longer than later pens.

.

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Posted (edited)

Green indicates the changes in this generation.

 

Third generation

Pelikan 100 (ca.1931)

 

Cap top; material: ebonite, shape: conical, inclined cap top end, logo: old four chicks logo on the top and “Pelikan PATENT” on the lateral side.
Cap tube; material: ebonite, shape: 4 cap holes (two holes facing each other), two narrow bands.
Clip; shape: same as the second generation.
Nib; material: 14 KG. shape: round shaped hole, logo: “Pelikan 14 KARAT. B”. Note: made by Montblanc.
Nib socket; material: ebonite, shape: short (12 mm)
Grip section; material: ebonite, shape; inclined end with small flat side portion.
Barrel; material: transparent amber (yellow) celluloid with brass ring. Note: I have seen some barrels that do not have brass ring (probably very early model). My pen has been too darkened over time to see inside.
Sleeve (Binde); material: celluloid.
Knob unit; material: ebonite with cork seal, shape: knurled turning knob.

Dimensions;

Total Cap Barrel Barrel Barrel Cap Ink Total 
length length length width(1) width(2) width capacity(3) weight
117 mm 61.5 mm 93.5 mm 12 mm 11 mm 13 mm 1.5 ml 15 g

 (1)with sleeve (2)without sleeve (3)ink chamber volume

 

There are many points to be described. 

 

Most remarkable was the change of the designation. According to the official site, “In 1931, the product range was expanded further (in 1930, introduced were Pelikan Gold and unofficial pen equivalent to later Model 112; Green Book. Italic by the author). As a consequence, model names became necessary.” “Model 100 with a sleeve in either green (now green marbled), black, grey, red, blue or yellow. Model 111 was used as a name for the Pelikan Gold. Model 110 for the fountain pen with a cap and sleeve made of rolled white gold. Model 112, cap and sleeve in 14 carat gold.” According to Green Book, T111 (Toledo) was also introduced in the same year (the official site says it was in 1932).

 

In line with the change of name, major constructional and material changes were made. With the conical cap, the pen was made slightly streamlined(Fig.2) (the shape was further streamlined in 100N to the taste of the time; Green Book). As a result of the inclined cap and grip end (Fig.5), they were faced obtusely and thus called “diagonal seal (Fig.6)." As the diagonal seal was more effective, the lateral seal became unnecessary (Green Book). In the third generation, the lateral seal was at first preserved, but later abandoned (I’ll mention it later). Though shortened, the nib socket held the nib and the feed tightly and fitted securely into the grip section. As for materials, Rick Propas explains in A History of Pelikan “They went to celluloid and hard rubber construction.” as “bakelite is heavy and brittle and like hard rubber does not take color well.” The grip section was screwed into the barrel. The joint lay in front of the threads for the cap. Please refer to Section assembly (mid-section of Originals Of Their Time: Darlings Of The 1930s). Furthermore, the internal thread of the barrel was reinforced with brass ring. Also, the brass ring, fitting the sleeve, helped to hold it on the barrel. These major specification changes were made in June 1931 (Green Book).


Fig.7 is the exploded view of the knob unit. Though I did not mention in the previous posts, it had not been changed since the first generation. Does it have anything to do with dating? Yes, it does (it will be mentioned in the following generations). Cork is fixed to the piston rod (b) with a friction-fit disk (a) (it was replaced with a screw-in disk in 100N). The piston rod is hollow and has internal thread. The spindle is inserted into the turning knob and fixed with a guiding pin (e). Inserting the piston rod into the piston guide (or "cone") (d) and screwing the spindle into the piston rod, the knob unit is all set. Just a moment! Please do not forget a tiny pin (c). The pin, inserted into a hole in the piston guide so that it fits in the groove on the piston shaft, prevents its rotation movement, and converts the rotation movement of the turning knob to the backward and return movement of the rod. The arrow indicates the direction to turn. The knob unit as well as the cap unit is easy to disassemble and clean.


NB; gray stuff in the barrel (Fig.8) is epoxy putty (Quick Type) (Cemedine ®). It had major defect and the internal thread was almost missing. Fortunately, this pen was not beyond repair. Please refer to here for details.

 

I forgot to list the total weights of the first and second generation. They were 14 g and 14.5 g, respectively.

 

Fig.1

1.JPG.c80a75c92b7a5a3a3e6fb8e3aa4e3921.JPG

 

Fig.2

2.thumb.JPG.25a7148e3520ea462bddd5390bc7950d.JPG

 

Fig.3

3.JPG.6e9540d12e24e5d243946594a6741ed4.JPG

 

Fig.4

4.thumb.JPG.6dc5904b7e20c24c7211db75b77c156b.JPG

 

Fig.5

5.jpg.2f4de1f4ed2241936e08dd72735838da.jpg

 

 

Fig.66.JPG.4f50e3b7982752e0430d7a638d533977.JPG

 

Fig.7

7.thumb.jpg.1de29a3283acf8d3e1add5931b0e1380.jpg

 

Fig.8

8.JPG.08723e89ef165e194887367f0befdd47.JPG

Edited by tacitus
Information was added.

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In my findings, the 1931 Pelikan fountain pen, known as “Pelikan 100” for the first time is a true classic representing the turning point where most of the concepts and features Pelikan was distinguished for the following 50 years came to place, all backed by excellence in mechanical engineering:

 

  • modular design, optimizing the industrial assembling of different models around common pre-fabricated core parts of high precision. 
  • engineering solutions and refinements allowing for improved manufacturing eficacy, appearance as close to the ads as possible, long and reliable functioning and easy, authorized stationary shop serviceability.
  • possibility of outsourcing the assembling process for some of the basic models to the Pelikan factories to be built around Europe and elsewhere (Gdańsk, Milan, Vienna, Zagreb, Sofia...), thus increasing the profits while making the price more competitive to the end user.

I believe this is the point where Pelikan pens really started selling worldwide.

I have one 1931 Pelikan 100 (yellow), for which it took me quite a while to restore and fine-tune, so I didn’t feel like taking it apart for showing its exploded view.

Congrats for the great post @tacitus, especially for the part explaining the construction and mechanics of the Kovàcs piston mechanism.

 

BTW, introduction of the ebonite grip-section, much more break-proof than bakelite also made for shortening the “nib socket”, otherwise also known as collar or bushing by 5 mm.

 

In the following posts of another thread we’ve shared some interesting moments in dating a 1931 Pelikan 100:

 

https://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/topic/359170-pelikan-100-nib/?do=findComment&comment=4415994

 

 

https://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/topic/359170-pelikan-100-nib/?do=findComment&comment=4416297

 

🙂

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tacitus
19 hours ago, stoen said:

In my findings, the 1931 Pelikan fountain pen, known as “Pelikan 100” for the first time is a true classic representing the turning point where most of the concepts and features Pelikan was distinguished for the following 50 years came to place, all backed by excellence in mechanical engineering:

 

  • modular design, optimizing the industrial assembling of different models around common pre-fabricated core parts of high precision. 
  • engineering solutions and refinements allowing for improved manufacturing eficacy, appearance as close to the ads as possible, long and reliable functioning and easy, authorized stationary shop serviceability.
  • possibility of outsourcing the assembling process for some of the basic models to the Pelikan factories to be built around Europe and elsewhere (Gdańsk, Milan, Vienna, Zagreb, Sofia...), thus increasing the profits while making the price more competitive to the end user.

I believe this is the point where Pelikan pens really started selling worldwide.

I have one 1931 Pelikan 100 (yellow), for which it took me quite a while to restore and fine-tune, so I didn’t feel like taking it apart for showing its exploded view.

Congrats for the great post @tacitus, especially for the part explaining the construction and mechanics of the Kovàcs piston mechanism.

 

BTW, introduction of the ebonite grip-section, much more break-proof than bakelite also made for shortening the “nib socket”, otherwise also known as collar or bushing by 5 mm.

 

In the following posts of another thread we’ve shared some interesting moments in dating a 1931 Pelikan 100:

 

https://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/topic/359170-pelikan-100-nib/?do=findComment&comment=4415994

 

 

https://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/topic/359170-pelikan-100-nib/?do=findComment&comment=4416297

 

🙂

 

stoen

Thank you for providing the reason why ebonite was selected for the grip-section that was subject to screwing off and on actions and gripping action.

and thank you for sharing your research. The nib, especially its shape and imprint is very informative. 

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Thanks, @tacitus. I believe this was a special grade ebonite suitable for fountain pens that the GW Company got with the package of patents licensed by the Penkala Moster Company.

I’ve seen many wartime repaired pens where those special ebonite sections got replaced with standard machined ebonite - I guess due to the lack of original parts and materials.

 

As for shortening the collar, there is a structural reason - let’s do a bit of “reverse engineering”. If one takes a closer look at the section dimensions and construction, one would immediatelly notice that making the section inner threading at 17mm from the front sealing step inward would put it dangerously close to the outer threading connecting it to the celluloid barrel. This would cause a structural weakness, also making repairs difficult. The obvious solution was to engineer the inner threading position 5mm closer toward the front end, therefore also shortening the collar. This also made the inner surface between the collar and section, prone to geting cemented with dried ink smaller. Last but not least, ebonite reacts better to heating, making the nib assembly easier to unscrew. This idea of interchangeable nib assemblies has been recognized as part of Pelikan pen concept.

 

As for the bakelite (= cured phenolic resin) having been phased out at that point, I know from professional repairmen that the pressurized curing process in controlled environment, patented as bakelization, essential for the production of this material could not completely eliminate water molecules from the polymer structure, making its interaction with some inks somewhat unpredictable and inconsistent. 

I’ve been taught that bakelite could eventually become brittle and/or warp, thus making unscrewing the nib assembly for maintenence risky and difficult. Seems you had much luck with both of your bakelite pens having survived for 92 years!

 

 

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Nethermark

Just to say that this is a great thread! I'm learning so much from this. So far I don't have any of these very early versions of the Pelikan 100, but they are fascinating.

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