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Countries Vietnam DPRK Poland Albania Cuba DDR Romania Soviet Union Background I saw a table in Shanghai Foreign Affairs Chronicle, which is about the projects supported by China in 1955-1990. There are 3 fountain pen makers supported by Shanghai: Hongha Stationary Factory in Vietnam, Poland Fountain Pen Factory, Kim Anh Fountain Pen Factory in Vietnam. By the way, according to Chronicle of Shaanxi Province Vol. 15 Light Indrustry, a fountain pen / ball pen factory for Cuba was cancelled, machines were used to found Xi`an Fountain Pen Factory. And something about DPRK, Albania, DDR, Romania were collected by Shanghai Archives Hall. Hongha Stationary Factory, Nhà máy Văn phòng phẩm Hồng hà, now it is called Công ty Cổ phần Văn phòng phẩm Hồng hà, HH for short. According to a protocol made by PRC and DRV in 1956. 7. 26, PRC would help DRV to found its own fountain pen manufacturer. Shanghai Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Annuals said it began building in 1957, the factory was handed over to DRV in 1959. 12, while shqgz said it finish building in 1959.9 and HH said it is found in 1959. 10. 1, the 10th Anniversary of PRC. It was designed to produce 300,000 fountain pens, 14,000,000 pencils, 600.,000 bottle of ink and so on. The brands of Hongha are TRƯỜNG SON (name of a mountain), HOÀN KIẾM (name of a lake), HỒNG HÀ (name of a river) and TRẠNG NGUYÊN (=Zhuangyuan in Chinese. principal graduate), NÉT HOA (it is for calligraphy), TRƯỜNG SA (under the Vietnamese name of Nansha Islands.) Website: http://www.vpphongha.com.vn/ Online Store: https://vpphonghaonline.com.vn/ NÉT HOA 300 No. 2231 http://bizweb.dktcdn.net/thumb/grande/100/334/874/products/2231-2-4d39fa65-e77e-4b47-97bb-bbeb8b55e4c7.jpg https://bizweb.dktcdn.net/100/334/874/products/2231-d2.jpg According to a thesis named Tổ chức Kế toán chi phí sản xuất và tính giá thành sản phẩm với việc tăng cường quản trị kinh doanh tại Công ty Văn phòng phẩm Hồng hà, https://toc.123doc.net/document/772984-van-phong-pham-hong-ha.htm, HH founded in 1959. 10. 1 and began to product in 1960. Its pencil lines were hand over to another factory in 1972. In 1981, Kim Anh was combined into HH. In 1997, it turn its name into HH stationary company. Now it is a joint stock company. I posted my collection of Vietnamese pens here. The box belongs to TRƯỜNG SON 19-8, according to Voice of Vietnam, https://vov.vn/xa-hoi/can-canh-nhung-cay-but-hong-ha-may-chuc-nam-tuoi-425436.vov, it was produced from 1961, in memory of August Revolution in August, 1945. It based on a No, 24 model in China for student. The pens look like Hero 616 (small size) with Hero 100-style barrel band rather than 616-style barrel band (ink window). The nib is 19.5 mm, which is the same as Hero 100/110 and 616. Vietnamese have their own 616 named Hồng hà 72, which have 6 colours, Black, Red, Light Purple, Sky Blue，Grass Green, Lake Blue and its name is in memory of Air Battle of Dien Bien Phu/Operation Linebacker II, according to VOV, https://vov.vn/kinh-te/105-trieu-dong-3-cay-but-may-hong-ha-315541.vov. I think it used molds provided by China. Or It is another oversea steel nib “581” Hero like 616 (small size). https://vov.vn/uploaded/thuyhoa/2015_08_24/VOV_Hong_ha_72_DUJW.jpg https://vov.vn/xa-hoi/can-canh-nhung-cay-but-hong-ha-may-chuc-nam-tuoi-425436.vov HH was aided by Wolff, which changed its name into Hero in 1966. 10. Wolff helped train Vietnamese trainees, too. According to an article named How Chinese Craftsmen Aid Foreign Countries, Dang`an Chunqiu, 2020. 5, Zhang Shanbao, vice director of Wolff`s Component Workshop and National Model Worker in 1956, were send to Vietnam to help them in 1959. 4. Vietnamese required that HH should be found in 1 years. The support ended 2 month earlier than plan. Zhang earn Vietnamese Model Worker Medal--Anh hùng Lao động Việt Nam. And Vietnamese can produce twice of the design per annum Zhang Shanbao https://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20190301A0QL3200 Here comes Kim Anh Fountain Pen Factory, Nhà máy Bút máy Kim anh. PRC and DRV make protocol in 1967. 10. 6. It was designed that 1,600,000 high grade iridium pointed fountain pens per annum. 500,000 d=11mm with stainless cap, 600,000 d=10.6 with aluminum cap and 500,000 d=10.6 with aluminum cap. Because Vietnamese turned anti-Chinese and many Chinese who living in SRV became refugee, PRC stop support in 1978. 7. 3. According to a Vietnamese thesis named Một số ý kiến đề xuất nhằm hoàn thiện tổ chức kế toán tập hợp chi phí sản xuất và tính giá thành sản phẩm ở Nhà máy Giầy Phúc Yên, https://www.tailieudaihoc.com/doc/246447.html, Kim Anh founded in 1976 and began to produce fountain pen in 1978. 12. 19, machines were supported by China. The product of Kim Anh were exported to Poland, Hungary, South America and so on. In 1982. 4, Kim Anh were combined into Hongha as its branch. In 1987. 10. 1, Comecon draw a conclusion that Kim Anh should be turn to produce shoes, So it turned to be Nhà máy Giầy Phúc Yên. Phuc Yen Shoes Factory. Now, it is Phuc Yen Shoes Joint Stock Company. Its fountain pen brand may be HẠ LONG mentioned in https://vov.vn/xa-hoi/nguoi-suu-tam-but-may-422787.vov. Ngô Việt Dũng, owner of Bút máy Sao Khuê, Hanoi, the main role in the report, is the staff of Handheld, a Vietnamese forum and a former engineer of HH, who is related to TRƯỜNG SA fountain Pen. Bút máy Sao Khuê: http://butmay.com/ Sao Khuê=Kui Xing in Chinese, means the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang. Chongjin Fountain Pen Factory According to Renmin Ribao 1961. 3. 29, PRC and DPRK made an agreement in 1960. 10. 13 and a protocol in 1961. 3. 28, China would support some factories founded by DPRK government including a fountain factory. A document said that fountain pen factory project belonged to Shanghai in 1961. 7. 7. Zhang Shanbao went to Chongjin in 1961. 6 and he earned Chollima medal of DPRK. Another document said that DPRK wanted to cancel 4 factories including fountain pen factory. MS. Lu said she work in Chongjin Changpyeong-Dong Fountain Pen Factory after graduated from high school before DPRK`s anti-Chinese activities in Early Great Proletarian Culture Revolution era in DPRK Chinese Student Online Union forum, http://cxhq.info/simple/?t5121.html. South Korea`s Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade (KIET) published an report in 2014 https://www.e-ia.co.kr/sonosa/newsletter/201412/p2.pdf, there were 4 fountain pen factories in DPRK and one named Chongjin Fountain Pen Factory in Chongjin. Zhang Shanbao in DPRK https://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20190301A0QL3200 Sinuiju Disabled Soldiers` Stationary Factory According to KIET, there is a factory name Sinuiju Disabled Soldier Stationary Factory in Sinuiju. A University of Liaoning`s student thesis named How light industry, textile industry and electronics industry develop during adjustment in Dandong by Wang Qiuke, who graduated in 1981 said that in the year 1980, the Responsible Secretary of the North Pyongan Province Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea ask Dandong Fountain Pen Factory for drawing of a machine invented in 1979 when his visit in Liaoning. Pyongyang Fountain Pen Factory/ Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory According Dandong Yearbook 2002, Dandong Fountain Pen Factory investigate a fountain pen factory in DPRK. And in the yearbook 2004, Dandong Fountain Pen Factory said it founded a long time partnership with Pyongayang Fountain Pen Factory and Sinuiju Trading Company. The only fountain pen factory in Pyongyang is Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory refer to KIET. South Korea website CyberNK introduce the factory here: http://www.cybernk.net/infoText/InfoHumanCultureDetail.aspx?mc=CC0302&sc=A32010005&tid=CC020200035811&direct=1, The factory locates on Kwangbok Street, Mangyongdae- guyok, Pyongyang City. It mainly produce fountain pen. In 1952. 5, it was founded as Taedong 2.8 Disabled Soldiers’ Cooperative, when Mangyongdae belonged to Taedong County. In 1966, it changed its name into Mangyongdae Disabled Soldiers’ Fountain-pen Factory. The factory later moved to Kwangbok Street and finished building in 1990. 12. Mangyongdae, Pyongyang must be its product while Chollima maybe its product, too. The Japanese Blog shows Mangyongdae and Chollima with Youtube video http://dprknow.jp/blog-entry-3531.html Like PRC, DRV or SRV, DPRK also exported fountain pen to PPL. Poland Fountain Pen Factory/ Częstochowskie Zakłady Materiałów Biurowych (CZMB) Chinese called it Poland Fountain Pen Factory in Chronicle or documents. CZMB`s brand is Zenith. According to Shanghai Foreign Affairs Chronicle, PRC and PRL made protocol in 1961. 3. 29, one day after the protocol with DPRK. The factory is designed to produce 150,000 Model 100, 150,000 Model 581, 10,000 Model 215, 10,000 Model 26,25,000 Model 100A, 150,000 Model 215A per annum. 100A and 215A are mechanical pencils, the other are gold nib fountain pens. Chinese only needed to provide machines and molds. In 1962. 11, the project finished. Shanghai Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Annuals provided more details. More than 50 technicians from more than 20 factories and institutes designed the machines and molds. They were produced in 9 factories which were located on Shanghai, Wuxi and Hangzhou. Chinese provided 100 machines, 108 molds, 5084 components of machine or molds, components of 5 kinds of GOLD nib fountain pen including “215” Lucky, “100” Hero, “581” Hero. The factory would produce 300,000 fountain pens and 10,000,000 pencils per annum. Polish friends pay 100,000 Rbl, about 220,000 Yuan as protocol, while they costed Chinese 713,600 Yuan, about 324000 Rbl. The project finished in 1962.12. Wyborcza has an article here to indroduce the history of CZMB. (https://czestochowa.wyborcza.pl/czestochowa/1,150461,20104150,zenith-byl-tani-a-jakoscia-dorownywal-najlepszym-dlugopisom.html) At the beginning, in 1934, Omega Fountain Pen Factory was found by M. Szaja and A. A. Wrocławski. In 1949, the factory was nationalized. In 1951. 1. 1, Omega combined with some other paper product factories to found CZMB. In 1954, paper product department belonged to a new factory. Only fountan pen factory remained. In 1960s, PRL decided to create Poland Fountain Pen, so Częstochowa was chosed. Plastic engineer Józef Koszkul (now, we should call him Prof. Józef Koszkul) became the person in charge. Even though Chinese provide machines, the nibs of “Polish Parker” were developed by Józef Koszkul, Eugeniusz Helm and Jan Frymus. They formally produce fountain pen in 1965. They got a patent about nib slitting by using softer metal in 1967. Józef Koszkul said that Chinese did not provide introduce of the machines, and they often needed to be repaired. The first model fountain pen after PRL bought Chinese were produced in 1965 basing on Chinese model. There were popular with nice quality. However, Józef Koszkul bought 1kg of GOLD from Mint of Poland to try producing GOLD nib but failed. “Precious metal is too soft.” So CZMB decided to use stainless to produce nib. …… After privatization, CZMB belonged to many company including Monami from South Korea. Now it belongs to Astra, a Polish company. The former workers made an protocol with Astra to produce Zenith fountain pen in some room of former CZMB. https://www.szukajwarchiwach.gov.pl/en/zespol/-/zespol/75198, said that in 1947, Omega Fountain Pen Factory belonged to Rozenwajg, the tenant. Wyborcza provides photos of some of CZMB products. CZMB`s Products after modern improvement. Zenith-2 is Model 581 with a differernt stainless jewels and Late Model 215 style double pressure bar guard. It is early version which is with arrow clip. blizzardboy`s Zenith-2 https://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/topic/324428-zenith-2-polish-or-czechoslovakian/ https://archiwum.allegro.pl/oferta/stare-pioro-wieczne-na-atrament-zenith-2-prl-i6216354145.html Early Zentih 2 http://www.legendy-prl.pl/pioro_zenith_2.html Late Zenith 2 Muzeum użytkownika Hajer on https://myvimu.com/ said that Late Zenith 2 (13.5cm) is 1 cm longer than the Early one (12.5cm). Zenith 1 is 14.3cm, I think it based on Model 100. I do not find Polish Model 26 and Model 215.. https://myvimu.com/exhibit/54782573-zenith-1-pioro-wieczne Zenith 9 looks cheap. Brutto’s Zenith 9 https://www.fountainpennetwork.com/forum/topic/76352-pens-from-poland/page-2 The interview with Józef Koszkul by Wyborcza make a mistake that China do not get Parker factory in China or drawing till 1979, Parker and Hero wanted to cooperate on Parker 45 and years ago Lishui bought machines and molds from Parker`s Dongguan Factory in rumor. There was a document about the investigation about production in Częstochowa and project settlement in 1964. And Chinese accepted Polish trainees in 1965. Albania Document said that Shanghai Pen & Plastic Company, the administrator of pen and plastic factories in Shanghai took part in aiding Albania. I do not know whether there was pen factory aided by China in Albania or not. Cuba Fountain Pen & Ball pen Factory→ Xi`an Fountain Pen Factory China also planned to support Cuba in 1963. However, according to Chronicle of Shaanxi Province Vol. 15 Light Indrustry, Light Industry Department decide to hand the machines over Shaanxi Province, and Xi`an agreed to found Local-Administered State-owned Xi`an Fountain Pen Factory in 1966. In 1966. 9, Low rate initial production. In 1967, formal production. 1967-1969, only normal iridium pointed fountain pen. Yanhe延河 In 1969, high grade iridium pointed fountain pen. Xianhe仙鹤 In 1976, fountain pen without iridium. Must be Youyi/Friendship友谊, for exporting. From 1986, cooperating with Hero to produce Hero 258 and Hero 611. Nibs and feeds were provided by Hero. According to Shaanxi Yearbook 1989, Hero 258 were formally produced. Phoenix triumph nib high grade iridium pointed fountain pen were put into market. Shaanxi Yearbook 1990, Hero 611`s mold design was finished. Shaanxi Yearbook 1992, Xi`an cooperated with Hero, Jianhua stationary in Gangxia Town, Wuxi(later it became Wenda, aka. Lujiatang Village-owned Pen Compount Factory) for compounents, Ballpen branch in Mi County, Zhengzhou, and Hong Kong YUE CHUEN for chain roller. Shaanxi Yearbook 1993, asking for Japanese stationary brand Zebra for cooperation. Founding branch with YUE CHUEN. Shaanxi Yearbook 1995, production stopped. Xi`an Yearbook 1999, Xi'an Wanchengshang Property Company merged Xi`an Fountain Pen Factory. Others Romania send investigation group about fountain pen to China in 1959-1960 DDR send exports to investigate Chinese fountain pen, ball pen and daily hardware in 1966-1967. China learn Accordion Filing from Soviet Union. In Renmin Ribao 1956. 10. 24, Fountain Pen New Compounents, Wolff learned Soviet advance experience and succeed in producing accordion ink sac. Wang YX, A few work for improving quality in fountain pen industry, Chinese Light Industry, 1956, 15: 9-11 said in the National Fountain Pen Industry Professional Conference, 1956, the first one was that Soviet accordion sac should be promoted. It had been tested and it could increase ink capacity to 1.4-1.8 cc. Longin, Guangming, and early Lucky`s model 215 used Soviet accordion sac.