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  1. Tefolim

    Rockman: the Hidden History

    You can find the article on my blog. https://tefolium.blogspot.com/2021/02/rockman-hidden-history.html As we know, Rockman was the second earliest fountain pen manufacturer confirmed by documents. However, there are a lot of wrong things in Rockman's history, especially the memoirs by Ning Sihong宁思宏, the former shareholder, turstee, manager and director after 1946. The four kinds of histories about Rockman were mainly based on his memoirs. I'd like to rebuild Rockman's history here with the documents and ads I collected. Notice: William Kwan Rockman(Wm. K. Rockman) = Guan Leming关勒铭. All the name of people but William Kwan Rockman will be Pinyin. I will add a list about the name and their romanization at last. People's names are in Simplified Chinese. Books', magazines', newspapers' and companies' names are depended on the periods. Modern Source means the four kinds of histories mainly based on Ning Sihong memoirs. Modern Source about Chen Sisheng陈巳生 is a brief biography about Chen written by his hometown. I also bought some documents such as the pedigree of William Kwan Rockman‘s clan(2005 editon). I am waiting for them. 1. Founders of Rockman According to the Prospectus of Wm. K. Rockman Inc. which founded in Shanghai in 1928.4, Guan Chongzhang关崇章, Guan Chongchang关崇昌 and Wm. K. Rockman wanted to found Wm. K. Rockman Inc. in 497 Connaught Road Shanghai, China. Even though they'd like to collect 200,000$ capital, they wrote down that once 150,000$ capital was collected, the company should be founded.And Guan Chongchang should collect capital in North America, Wm. K. Rockman and Guan Weilin关伟林 should work as engineers. Wm. K. Rockman Inc. was founded with 150,000$ capital in Shanghai. And the founders in the company policy of Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Pen Factory Ltd. (1946.5.18 correction) were Wm. K. Rockman、Li Lianming李炼明、Hu Zhuanghe胡庄和、Guan Xunpu关勋谱、Guan Shutang关树堂、Li Tailong李泰隆、Guan Chongchang、Guan Chongzhang、Guan Weilin关伟林. Because that if any founders withdrew the company, he would be no longer appeared in the company policy as founder in some company, the list may not be completed. It was strange that Guan Chongchang = Guan Weilin in fact. The Prospectus mentioned that Wm. K. Rockman was the inventor of Fountain Brush (patent US1526093 and US1621432). Wm. K. Rockman's patents The 1946.5.18 correction, 1946.9.1 edition and 1947.11.1 correction of the company policy emphasized that Guan Chongzhang and Wm. K. Rockman were the original founders of Wm. K. Rockman Company. An interview with Wm. K. Rockman in 1933, he said "Our company was founded in 7 years ago". In another report about Wm. K. Rockman Inc. in 1937, Wm. K. Rockman came back to China with 150,000$ collected by his father Guan Weilin in 1927. We can draw a conclusion: Wm. K. Rockman invented Fountain Brush in the US, he founded Wm. K. Rockman Inc. with his father Guan Chongchang(aka. Guan Weilin) in New York. Later, they wanted to move to Shanghai. Wm. K. Rockman, Guan Chongchang and Guan Chongzhang wrote down the Prospectus. Wm. K. Rockman Inc. finally founded by at least 9 people. 2. Wm. K. Rockman and his father Guan Chongchang They were from Kaiping, Guangdong. According to Guan Chongchang's daughter, Guan Zhong'ai, Guan Chongchang was born in 1872.3.16 and died in 1953.10.28. The interview in 1933 said Wm. K. Rockman came back to China when he was 30. Wm. K. Rockman should be born in about 1897. However, Xu Wancheng许晚成's A brief history of talents in various industries in Shanghai(上海百業人才小史, lit.)which was published in early 1945, mentioned that Guan Chongchang was 71 year old while Wm. K. Rockman was 51 years old. So, Wm. K. Rockman born in about 1892. An introduction of Wm. K. Rockman Inc. in 1936 said that Guan Chongchang was owner of a restaurant a woolen store in Chinatown, New York. According to the report about Wm. K. Rockman Inc. in 1937, Wm. K. Rockman made fountain brush in his 18. Later, he had been in a school as part-time student to study engineering for 4 years. After graduation, because he lacked experiences, Wm. K. Rockman had worked in a famous fountain pen manufacturer for a period. Other Source said the school named International Collage and the famous fountain pen manufacturer was Waterman. Wm. K. Rockman was alive in 1947.10, when he still behaved a shareholder named Senji森记. 3. Wm. K. Rockman Inc. 1928.4-1944 3.1 1928.4-1929 Fountain Brush Only According to the application for change registration information in 1946.7.9, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. was founded in 1928.4. 1928.5.26, Wm. K. Rockman applied for registering patents in China. 1928.5.30, Wm. K. Rockman applied for registering trademarks. Trademark No. 419 Tradmark No. 420 1928.6, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. wanted to join the Advocate Domestic Products Conference. 1928.7.18, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. got its business license. 1928.8.15, trademarks were published. 1928.8.19, patents were turned to review. 1928.10.22, the first ad of Wm. K. Rockman Inc. was published The first ad on Sun Pao and Sin Wan Pao 1928.10.22 1928.10.23, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. was introduced by Sun Pao. There were 4 kinds of fountain brushes, 2 for men and 2 for women. And there were ABCD 4 kinds of brushes differentiated by hardness. 1929.2.4, Wm. K. Rockman got the No.2 license of patent in China. During this period, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. manufactured Fountain Brush only. They did not sell well. Modern source said that the paper and ink were different between China and the US, so the fountain brush did not work well. 3.2 1929-about 1934 Fountain Brush and Fountain Pen In 1929, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. started to produce fountain pen. Modern source said that, the nibs were made in British and Japan. 1929.11.18, ad on Sun Pao said Wm. K. Rockman Inc. released a kind of fountain brush and 4 kinds of fountain pen with steel nib recently. The first ad about fountain pen Sun Pao 1929.11.18 1930.8, there was a dismissal dispute between Wm. K. Rockman Inc. and worker Lu Kunsheng路坤生. It was mediated well. 1931.2, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. got tax relief in the domestic market and tax free for export. 1931.4.5, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. re-elected the board of members. The second board of trustees 1931.4.5-1933.? Trustee Stock Worth$ Guan Weiln 1200 60000 Guan Chongzhang 40 2000 Wm. K. Rockman 587 29350 Hu Jiawei 胡嘉维 60 3000 Guan Xunpu 50 2500 Guan Dexun 关德勋 400 20000 Xie Meizhu 谢美祝 10 500 Supervisor Stock Worth$ Hu Zhuanghe 20 1000 In Commercial Dictionary of Shanghai, published by The Commercial Press. LTD. Shanghai in 1931, the managements of Wm. K. Rockman Inc. were: Guan Chongchang - Manager Wm. K. Rockman - Production Manager Lu Shengqian陆升千 - Business Manager Gan Hanhui甘翰辉(aka. Gan Zhuowen甘焯文) - Accounting Manager Guan Weilin - Advertising Manager Gan Zhuowen甘卓文(甘焯文 is correct)- Clerical Manager So, it was normal for Wm. K. Rockman Inc.'s staffs using different name in different posts. In CREDIT MEN'S BUSINESS DIRECTORY 1933, Guan Chongchang(aka. Kwan Wm.) was the general manager, Wm. K. Rockman(aka. Kwan Rockman) was engineer, Gan Hanhui was business manager. Sin Wan Pao 1931.9.6 Sun Pao Monthly 1932.7.15 The Eastern Miscellany 1932 vol. 29, No. 3 The Eastern Miscellany 1933 vol. 30, No.8 The interview in 1933 said fountain brush had been incidental production, while Shidai Ribao時代日報's 2nd anniversary magazine in 1934 said that the fountain brush could not be popularized for a while, the manufacture had been stopped. The 2nd anniversary magazine said Wm. K. Rockman was the general manager,wrong. Wm. K. Rockman Inc.'s announcement published in 1934 still said that Guan Chongchang was the general manager. Sin Wan Pao Supplement 1934.9.30 3.3 1934-1937 Fountain Pen only, before the total Sino-Japan war's Battle of Shanghai Since 1935, Wm. K. Rockman and his father Guan Chongchang had been confusing in some introductions. 1936.10.31, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. applied for 4th Grade Domestic Good Certificate. 1936.11.13, Wm. K. Rockman Inc. got 4th Grade Domestic Good Certificate. 1936.4.8 Chinese Domestic Good Production and Marketing Association Weekly Report(中華國貨產銷協會每周匯報) Vol.2, No.14 said that Wm. K. Rockman Inc. was the first factory which could produce components by itself (in fountain pen makers). The colourful barrel materials were imported from the US and Germany. 1936.4, Social Economy Mouthly社會經濟月報 mentioned that Wm. K. Rockman Inc. had successfully developed Parker Vacumatic-style vacumatic fountain pen and it would be released soon. 1936.7.15, Chinese Domestic Good Production and Marketing Association Weekly Report Vol.2, No.28 had introduced the recently listed Rockman Vacumatic Fountain Pen. Rockman Vacumatic Chinese Domestic Good Production and Marketing Association Weekly Report Vol.2, No.28 1937.3, Kenneth Safford Parker came to China. Later, Parker announced that Arrow Clip was the trademark of Parker Pen in China. I did not find any Rockman Pen but Rockman's Vacumatic using Arrow Clip which can be identified that it was made before 1951. 1937.8.13, Battle of Shanghai broke out. Wm. K. Rockman Inc. stopped production temporarily. 3.4 1938-1944 Full of resumption of production-Reorganization of management 1938.10.10 Announce raising price. 1939.6.15 Announce raising price again. 1941.12.7 Pacific War broke out. Japanese occupied concessions. Modern Source said Rockman had to use domestic nibs and tubes because of the War, and the barrels were made of Japanese materials. The Factory and Business Dictionary of Shanghai上海工商名錄 published by Sun Pao in 1945 introduced the board of trustees and managements before re-organization in 1944. Chairman: Hu Zhuanghe Managing Trustee: Guan Weilin, Guan Chongzhang, Zhang Yibin张怡炳 Trustee: Guan Xunjin关勋锦、Gan Zuobin甘作斌(maybe Gan Hanhui)、Guan Xunyao关勋尧 Supervisor: Guan Xunpu, Hu Jiawei General Manager: Guan Weilin Vice Manager: Gan Hanhui Director: Guan Dexun In 1944.5.25, Sin Sin Industry announced that it was trusted by Rockman to deal with share affairs. In 1944.6.22 Rockman announced that it had finished IPO. The full name of Rockman became Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd.關勒銘鋼筆文具厰股份有限公司 Modern Source about Chen Sisheng said Wm. K. Rockman was to sick to manage company then, Guan Weilin met Chen Sisheng through his nephew Guan Kegui关可贵 and ask Chen for help. According to achieves, Liang Guan梁冠榴, Guo Yudong郭雨东, Xie Shoutian谢寿天, Mei Dajun梅达君, Liu Jingqing刘镜清(aka. Liu Xiao刘晓), Chen Sisheng, Ou Weiguo欧伟国, Lu Xiuyuan陆修渊, Yao Yan姚炎, Chen Miaosheng陈淼生(aka. Chen Duanyi陈端颐), Guan Kegui Joined in 1944. 4. 1944-1951 Re-organization, 20th Anniversary, before Joint State-private Ownership 1944.8.29, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. got certificates from the Wang Jingwei regime. 1945, The WWII ended In 1945, Chen Sisheng had met Ning Sihong and they founded The Educational Press. Ltd. 1946.5.18, re-election of the board of trustees. Lawyer Yu Shun虞舜 became law adversior. Before 1946.5.18, the legal trustees were Guan Shudong关叔东, Li Lianming, Hu Zhuanghe, Guan Xunpu and the supervisor was Guan Shutang. The Trustees and supervisors re-elected in 1946.5.18 Trustee Liang Guanliu Guo Yudong Xie Shoutian Wm. K. Rockman Mei Dajun Liu Jingqing Chen Sisheng Ou Weiguo Guan Chongzhang Guan Shutang Lu Xiuyuan Gan Zuobin Yao Yan Hu Jiawei Hu Zhuanghe Supervisor Guan Chongchang Chen Miaosheng Guan Kegui 1946.7.19, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. re-registered. The letter for re-register said that Rockman was founded in 1928.4. 1946.8, IPO again. Ning Sihong, Ning Sili宁斯理 etc. joined Rockman. 1946.9.21, re-election of the board of trustees. The Trustees and supervisors re-elected in 1946.9.21 Trustee Liang Guanliu Chen Sisheng Wen Tiansheng 闻天声 Mei Dajun Yao Yan Ning Sili Gan Hanhui Xie Shoutian Ou Weiguo Guo Yudong Ning Sihong Lu Xiuyuan Guan Kegui Mao Xiaocen毛啸岑 Liu Jingqing Alternate Trustee Yu Langxi俞朗西 Wang Jiadong王家栋 Supervisor Guan Chongchang Chen Miaosheng Qiao Qilin钱齐灵 Alternate Supervisor Guan Xunyao And the distribution agency of Rockman moved from the factory to Ning Sihong's paper factory and the Educational Press. Ltd. In 1947, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. celebrated its 20th anniversary. Shanghai Manufacturers' Directory 1947 p458 When the trademark had became 101 Rockman 14K was released as the commemorative pen in August with 10,000 Rockman Handbook. There were 12 colours of 101 Rockman. I think the Rockman Handbook were designed by Ning Sihing's paper factory. China Times 1947.9.10 Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. held a Dinner in 1947.10.10 and took a memorial photo. 111 Rockman was released in October, when 5000 Rockman Handbooks & 101 Rockman sets were added. 111 Rockman Sun Pao 1947.10.21 Wm. K. Rockman was alive in shareholders' list in October. 1947.11.1, re-election of the board of trustees. The Trustees and supervisors re-elected in 1947.11.1 Chairman Liang Guanliu Trustee Yao Yan Xie Shoutian Lu Baozhong陆宝忠 Ning Sili Gan Hanhui Ou Weiguo Guo Yudong Mei Dajun Xue Zhiying薛志英 Lu Xiuyuan Mao Xiaocen Ning Sihong Wen Tiansheng Liu Jingqing Yu Langxi Alternate Trustee Fu Jukang符巨康 (aka. Fu Bingyang符炳阳) Zhu Ruixuan朱瑞轩 Jiang Shilin蒋士林 Supervisor Guan Chongchang Chen Miaosheng Qiao Qilin Alternate Supervisor Guan Kegui Achieves in 1947.11.1 was said that Ning Sihong became Manager of Rockman in 1946.5.18, the same as Chen Sisheng, while Chen Sisheng only in Achieves in 1946.5.18. Strange. 1947.11.24, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. hold 20th anniversary reception. Because of the inflation, Rockman fountain pen's mail sale was stopped by some magazines. 1948.5, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. reissued certificates. 1948.8.18, current reform. 1948.8.19, Gold Yuan was issued. Gold was controlled by the KMT government. 1948.10.9, on ad, the distribution agency of Rockman and Ning Sihong's stationery had been moved to new place. 1948.10, Rockman stopped mail sale. On the October, fountain pen makers asked Kuomintang Government for rationing gold. 61 Rockman was released in the second half of the year 1948. 61 Rockman Sin Wan Pao 1948.12.21 Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. bought 100 machines between 1947.8 - about 1948 according to the manual. And there are achieves about Rockman's dismissing in Shanghai in 1948. 1949, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. still branded 61 Rockmman. 1949.2, Lawyer Zheng Jingshun郑经顺 announced he became the law advisor of Ning Sihong 1949.5.27, Shanghai was liberated fully. 1949.9, Ning Sihong joined the visiting group to N. E. China and advised to founded a fountain pen factory in Harbin with Harbin Enterprise Company哈爾濱企業公司. Chen Sisheng took part in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. 1949.12.1, the foundation of joint factory in Harbin had been published. 1949.12.5, Chen Sisheng became a member of East China Military and Administrative Committee as Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd.'s General Manager. 1950.5, the foundation of the joint factory in Harbin was permitted, and the factory began to produce fountain pen in 1950.10. Coupon before 1950.10 In 1950s, Rockman's manuals, coupons and director's speeches said it was founded in 1927, when Wm. K. Rockman came back to China. 1951.2.22, Chen Sisheng and Ning Sihong became Executive Members of Shanghai Federation of Industry and Commerce. 1951.7.1, Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. became Joint Public-private enterprise. 5. 1951-1962 From Joint Public-private Wm. K. Rockman Fountain Factory Ltd. to Shanghai Watch Components Factory 5.1 1951.7-1956 To industry-wide public-private ownerships In 1951, Ning Sihong became the director of Rockman after it became Joint Public-private enterprise. And the plants were moved to new place. Chen Sisheng died in 1953.8.2. Guan Chongchang died in 1953.10.28 101 accidents happened to Rockman in 1953. In 1954, Sin Hwa came to learned how to molten gold better. 1955.3, Pen Industry Company was founded. Ning Sihong was a vice-manager. Shanghai Cultural and Educational Supplies Industry Association re-organization, Ning Sihong became the chairman. 1955.7, It was reported that Rockman's celluloid workshop used fish scales and cellulose acetate to make celluloids instead of imported celluloids. Rockman learned how to molten gold better from Sin Hwa and broke the record. Ning Sihong took part in proposing for industry-wide public-private ownerships. 1955.12.28, Doctor, the successor of the first fountain pen manufacturer were merged by Rockman. 24 factories were merged by Rockman in 1956. 5.2 1956-1962 In the second half of the year 1956, 1955-style feed were promoted. 216 Rockman with 1955-style feed, 402/405 Doctor with fish-scale-light celluloids were released. The celluloids were cellulose nitrate. 216 Rockman, 402/405 Doctor, 102/105 Doctor 1957.5, Influence from Rightists made trobule in Rockman. 1957.6, "Friendship" was released. Friendship Fountain Pen Hangzhou Ribao 1957.7.25 Workers in Rockman broke 16 records before the 8th National Congress of All-China Federation of Trade Unions. In 1958, Rockman wanted to "Surpass Waterman". Before 1958.3.26, 81 Rockman was developed. It surpassed Pilot. In 1958.4.16, the first 81 Rockman was manufactured. Hongguang Pen Factory(红光钢笔厂) were merged by Rockman and Rockman's plastic workshop was merged by Shanghai Pen Plastic Factory(上海制笔塑料厂, lit). The brands owned by Rockmman were Rockman, Doctor, Hongguang, Meixing(美星) Before 1959.8.5, Rockman 81 had been redesigned. An ad in 1959. Rockman and Doctor were Gold nib fountain pen, Hongguang was steel nib fountain pen with iridium point, Meixing was steel nib fountain pen. High Grade Rockman>Doctor>Hongguang>Meixing Low Grade In about 1960, Rockman 66 was released. In 1960.11.28, Rockman was turned to produce watch components, fountain pen manufacturing and brands were transfered to Kin Sin. 66 Rockman ad for export Kin Sin's 1962 Calendar Card. The pens were 801 Kin Sin, 66 Rockman, 28 Doctor, 23 Doctor and 319 Kin Sin In 1961, Rockman made Chinese first watch hairspring. In 1962.2, Rockman changed its name into Shanghai Watch Components Factory. According to Seele's post in Gangbiwang(http://www.gangbiwang.net/read.php?tid-5164-page-2.html), Shanghai Watch Components Factory manufactured Rockman and 红宝Hongbao brand fountain pen. The address No.21, 237 Nong, Jiangsu Road belonged to Shanghai Light Industry Electronic Component Factory before 1981, when it was merged by Shanghai Watch Components Factory. And Shanghai Watch Components Factory became Shanghai Guanleming in 1995.12.23. If the box is real, Shanghai Watch Components Factory manufactured Rockman and Hongbao in a period between 1981-1995. Shanghai Guanleming is the largest watch gem bearing and shock absorber manufacturer in far east now. 6. The Transfer of Rockman brand in pen industry. 1926 -1960 Rockman 1960 -1978 Kin Sin 1978 - 2004 Hero. 1987 New Rockman Brand was registered by Jin Jingpeng金京鹏, who is relative to Hero 1988 Fuzhou Pencil Factory got license from Hero, when Hero was one of its shareholders. 1000,000 Rockman fountain pen were made for export. 1997 - 1998.7.29 Hero Changsu Guanleming Company was licensed by Hero to use Guanleming trademark. 2002 Changsu Fountain Pen Factory manufactured Guanleming. 2004 - 2018 Guanleming trademark belonged to Shanghai Guanleming Gold Pen Co., Ltd. 2018.3.20-2020.5.27 Guanleming trademark belonged to Changsu Fountain Pen Factory. 2020.5.27 - now Guanleming trademark belonged to Jin Jingpeng A period in 1981-1995.12, Shanghai Watch Components Factory manufactured fountain pen again under Rockman and Hongbao brands, if the box is real. One of Shanghai Guanleming, the former Shanghai Watch Components Factory's trademark is a variant of. 7. Other Daily newspaper Nanfang Ribao南方日报 and Magazine Nanfang南方杂志 are official newpaper and magazine of CPC Guangdong(Canton) Committee. Their journalists, retired journalist and a village named Xibi溪碧 in Lufeng City faked a 216 Rockman as a fountain pen which was a gift of Zhou Enlai, the former Chinese PM, in 1927 to got poverty relief funds that they should not got. They also planned to made a statue of the fake pan in the village. List of Names SC: Simplified Chinese TC: Traditional Chinese ALSO: The name was also written down as PINYIN: Pinyin Romanization: Other romanization in documents. All the Guan XXX are from the same Clan. SC TC ALSO PINYIN Romanization English Notice 关勒铭 關勒銘 関勒銘 as brand Guan Leming Kwan Rockman / Kuan Le-ming Wm. K. Rockman Co-founder of Rockman and the inventor. 关崇昌 關崇昌 Guan Chongchang It seems to be the generation name of Guan Weilin. Father of Wm. K. Rockman. Co-founder of Rockman 关崇章 關崇章 Guan Chongzhang 李炼明 李煉明 Li Lianming 胡庄和 胡莊和 Hu Zhuanghe One of Guan Chongchang's son-in-law 关勋谱 關勳譜 關勋譜, handwritting, 門→门 Guan Xunpu 关树堂 關樹堂 関樹堂, handwritting, 門→门 Guan Shutang 李泰隆 李泰隆 Li Tailong 关伟林 關偉林 関偉林 Guan Weilin Kwan William Guan Chongchang 胡嘉维 胡嘉維 Hu Jiawei 关德勋 關德勳 關德勛 Guan Dexun 谢美祝 謝美祝 Xie Meizhu 陆升千 陸升千 Lu Shengqian 甘翰辉 甘翰輝 Gan Hanhui Kan Hanwe The courtesy name of Gan Zhuowen. He had worked in Rockman since 1928. 甘焯文 甘焯文 Gan Zhuowen The birth name of Gan Hanhui. 张怡炳 張怡炳 Zhang Yibing 关勋锦 關勳錦 關勛錦, 関勳錦 Guan Xunjin 关勋尧 關勳堯 甘作斌 甘作斌 Gan Zuobin May be the third name of Gan Hanhui 陈巳生 陳巳生 Chen Sisheng 关可贵 關可貴 関可貴 Guan Kegui Nephew of Guan Chongchang. 梁冠榴 梁冠榴 Liang Guanliu Liang Kwan-Lau / Liang Kuan-Liu 郭雨东 郭雨東 Guo Yudong 郭景芳 Guo Jingfang's courtesy name 谢寿天 謝壽天 Xie Shoutian Real name is 郭本守 Guo Benshou, art name is 叔申 Shushen 梅达君 梅達君 Mei Dajun aka. 梅光庾 Mei Guangyu 刘镜清 劉鏡清 Liu Jingqing 刘晓 Liu Xiao‘s fake name. 欧伟国 歐偉國 Ou Weiguo Au Wai Kwok David David Au 陆修渊 陸修淵 Lu Xiuyuan 姚炎 姚炎 Yao Yan 陈淼生 陳淼生 Chen Miaosheng Chen. T. Y (Chen Tuan Yih) Another name is 陈端颐Chen Duanyi, The romanization belongs to the name 陳端頤. Elder brother of Chen Sisheng. 宁思宏 寧思宏 甯思宏 Ning Sihong 虞舜 虞舜 Yu Shun 关叔东 關叔東 関叔东, handwritting, 門→门 Guan Shudong 宁斯理 寧斯理 甯斯理 Ning Sili 闻天声 聞天聲 Wen Tiansheng 毛啸岑 毛嘯岑 Mao Xiaocen 毛兆荣Mao Zhaorong’s courtesy name 俞朗西 俞朗西 Yu Langxi 王家栋 王家棟 Wang Jiadong 钱齐灵 錢齊靈 Qian Qiling 陆宝忠 陸寶忠 Lu Baozhong 薛志英 薛志英 Xue Zhiying 符巨康 符巨康 Fu Jukang 朱瑞轩 朱瑞軒 Zhu Ruixuan 蒋士林 蔣士林 Jiang Shilin 郑经顺 鄭經順 Zheng Jingshun
  2. Continued from Part 1. 700 No gold trim, slight tapering barrel,all steel construction. Satin finish except end piece of barrel which is polished steel. Also clip nand cap finial, which is flared upwards. Clip marked "Guanleming". Polished steel tapering section, steel nib marked with new round logo. C/C fill. 718 (Gold) A rather ornate pen in dark green marble with several wide gold bands. The wide gold bands in the middle of the barrel and cap have identical matt and polished rhomboid pattern, gold band at the opening end of cap is marked "Guanleming" in a blend of traditional and simplified Chinese and other markings. Step-down section is in green with gold band near the end. Regular pattern gold nib marked "GOLD NIB, GLM" without specific carat rating. 800 (12K) While the pen is marked to have a 14K nib in reality it is 12K. Large satin gold finial at end of barrel, satin gold secton with modern metal hooded nib, black pressbar sheath with "GLM" marked on the pressbar itself. Oval medallion at top of clip marked "GLM" as per 102, a band just behind it around the cap marked "Guanleming". Band around open end of cap marked "800 (14K)". Cap and barrel bodies finished in fine engravings like rows of chevrons. Known variants: in gold, and silver finish. 801 (12K) Black lacquer barrel and back half of section, barrel has slim gold ring at the open end finished in knurled pattern, barrel end cap is also gold with similarly finished portin. Front half of section in matt gold and of modern metal hooded nib design. Gold cap has slight taper towards the end resembling Cross, finished in wavy engine turned engraving, open end of cap has a band between knurled rings, marked in Chinese "Guanleming Gold Pen" etc. Top of clip has new round logo. C/C fill. 802 (14K) No gold trim, except for nib, finished in black lacquer. Cylindrical barrel and cap, barrel ends are silver, towards end of cap there is a silver ring with polished and satin striped portions, marked "Guanleming" in Chinese and "802". Nib is of regular pattern marked as a Jin Rong product, probably identical to that used on the 108. Satin silver finish section with oval shaped with parallel lines to offer grip. C/C fill. 902 A pen of regular pattern, cap and barrel in brown marbled lacquer. Gold finials at the ends of cap and barrel have a groove around each, gold ring at open end of barrel in the form of two rounded rings separated by a groove. Black section, nib with Hero flower logo and "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese. 904B A cylindrical pen with gold trim: barrel finial has groove at the end, and three raised rings towards the barrel, same raised rings at open end, and similar as cap finial. black section with gold ring at the front, dagger nib marked with Hero flower logo. Pressbar bulb fill with "Guanleming" on the sheath. Known variants: in satin steel finish with variety of decorations including mandarin ducks and lotus, stars. Also in brown and black marble lacquer. 905 When capped it has a torpedo shape, with black domed finials separated from cap and barrel end with slim gold rings. A wider bgold band with two grooves at the open end of cap marked "GUANLEMING 905". Black section with gold rings at each end, regular pattern nib marked with Hero flower logo and "GLM". Known variants: black, and white/blue/pink agate lacquer. 927 Steel pen, towards end of barrel is a step-down gold ring giving a smaller diameter end for posting. Clip marked with new round logo and "Guanleming", gold finial of the cap has markings in the middle. Polished steel section, Sheaffer-like conical nib finished in gold, marked with new logo and "GUANLEMING". Known variants: satin and polished steel finish. 951 A simple Parkeresque plastic hooded nib pen, with narrow ink window. Rounded end one-piece cap. Known variants: in black, grey and maroon. 953 Plastic cylindrical pen with steel cap, silver finial at the end of barrel. Black section, regular pattern gold-finished nib. Open end of cap marked "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese, and "953". Known variants: barrel in black, dark green, and maroon. 954 Accountant Cylindrical shape pen finished in two colours, between colour sections are slim gold rings. Conspicuously marked on cap is "GuanLeMing" and "Accountant's Pen" in Chinese. Classic style hooded nib section, pressbar bulb fill. Known variants: Green/black, black/maroon, maroon/grey. 954 Fude Styling of cap and barrel similar to previous entry, but with fude nib. Cap body and middle portion of barrel have the same fluting. Known variants: Black/white, maroon/gold, green/gold 956 A larger and classically style black plastic pen with gild trim, Regular pattern gold finished nib marked with new round logo and "GLM", pressnar bulb fill with "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese on pressbar sheath. 961 This pen resembles Sonnet a little, with gold finials at cap and barrel with a raised round insert in the middle. Wider dual-tone ring at the open end of cap marked "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese and "961". Black section, dual-tone nib marked with new round logo and "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese. A sphere at the tip of the clip, and at the top the new round logo. Known variants: matt painted finish in black, dark brown, blue, and white with engraved lines. In gold finish with carved dragon on cap and phoenix on barrel, gold with wavy engraved lines, satin gold with wide and narrow polished spiral bands, same in satin steel, gold with straight lines and round dots, satin steel, satin steel with raised gold decoration for new year 1996, ditto for the 1997 takeover of Hong Kong. 962 Pen with black barrel and section, gold finials on ends of cap and barrel. Dual-tone nib, steel cap in different finishes, gold Parkeresque clip. Known variants: cap in black and brown lacquer, satin steel with Chinese writings, satin steel with black printed dragon. 970 End of barrel has rather awkward gold finials with black insert, open end has gold ring with a dark middle portion. End of cap tapers slightly with gold finial with insert. Clip with sphere at the tip and the new round logo at the top. Near cylindrical nib with no breather hole. Known variants: solid colours on pen itself, with matching colours in marbled lacquer on cap: green, maroon and black, the marbling on cap can also show some fern patterns. 971 The barrel is approximately cylindrical with grooved flat finial, gold tapering section resembling that of the 103, dual-tone nib marked with new round logo and "GLM". Cap has gold band at the open end, with dark band in the middle marked "GUANLEMING" etc, with flat-topped dome finial. Pressbar bulb fill. Known variants: cap and barrel finished in black, polished steel, and dark grey with gold dust. 973 Cylindrical pen bearing a slight resemblance to the Vector. End of barrel has smaller black portions to facilitate posting, clip end with new round logo and spherical tip. Gold band against which the cap closes possibly marked "GUANLEMING CHINA". Black section with two gold rings at the front, with a nib somewhat like that on the Vector, marked with new round logo. Known variants: steel, and black-and-tan marbled lacquer. 978 Steel pen with gold trim, clip with spherical end and new logo at top. Black section with a gold ring and then a shaped hooded nib, pressbar fill sheath marked "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese. 984 A student pen with black trim, barrel finial has reduced diameter portion for posting. Open end of cap marked "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese and "984". Pressbar bulb filler sheath marked "Guanleming" in the same way. Matt finish on cap and barrel. Hooded nib with ribbed section. Known variants: barrel with two styles of markings to signify fude nib or regular fine nib; former in black, grey, and blue; latter in black, and green. 992 With Sheaffer-like steel nib same as 927 except finish. Black plastics section, steel caps. Known variants: black barrel version has flat finial separated by a gold ring, with black finial, brushed steel cap with black printed markings at open end, black finial at end of cap. Polished steel version has rounded barrel end, with matching cap and gold clip. 995 No gold trim, brushed steel finish, black section with small nib marked with new round logo, pressbar sheath marked "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese. 2000 (12K) Gold bullet-shaped finials on both ends of cap and barrel, black pressbar sheath, classic style hooded nib section. At open end of cap marked "Guanleming" in Chinse and "2000". When disassembled: finned collector integral with connector, nib marked with new round logo and "Gold" in Chinese, and "50%". Known variants: black with gild vine pattern, and steel with groups of wavy lines. 2001 A hooded nib style demonstrator. "Century" It is doubtful if it is the official appellation. When capped, no gild trim visible, black finish. Flat barrel end, domed finial at top of cap. Open end of barrel has wide silver band with colourful abalone shell inserts. Open end of cap has slim silver ring marked "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese etc. Satin gold section flanked with silver rings, dual-tone gold nib in regular pattern, with new round logo, "GUANLEMING, 22K GP". Unidentified model 1 (12K) Gently tapering in style, finished in black lacquer, cap and barrel have small flat gold finials. GOld tapering section for modern metal hooded nib style, clip marked "Guanleming", along with "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese at open end of cap. near the cap finial, under the top of the clip is another slim gold ring. Unidentified model 2 The most obvious characteristic is multifaceted barrel and cap with a left-handed twist. Black reduced diameter portion at end of barrel with gold finial for posting, cap finial with a groove around it. Clip bears a slight resemblance to Pelican, at the top is marked "GLM" and the new round logo. Black section with gold ring at the front end, Regular pattern nib finished in gold, marked with Hero's flower logo and "Guanleming" in simplified Chinese. Known variants: in gold, and tungsten-like dark metal finish. Unidentified model 3 No gold trim. The section appears to be the same as the 801, but with a simpler gently tapering barrel with slim finial plug. Cap decorated with a grid pattern, with an oval marked with something that is not legible in existing pictures; whether it is a Guanleming product still to be confirmed. Unidentified model 4 A cylindrical pen in brushed steel finish and raised gold decoration, and a well-known quartrain "Night docking at the Mable Bridge" by a Chinese poet. Black plug at the end of barrel with gold finial for posting, gold finial on cap. Section is the same as many Jin Rong models with nib resembling that on a Montblanc 22, marked "JR".

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