The typewriter was invented in 1843. The qwerty keyboard was introduced in 1878. Mark Twain in the 1870s used a typewriter and later became an endorser of the Conklin Fountain Pen.
The fountain pen was invented in 1827, but the first practical one was invented in 1884 by Waterman.
Typewriters, even portable ones were a common device by both WW1 and WW2, but not practical for a soldier to carry. Company clerks used them in the militaries of the technologically advanced combatants. There are photographs of large numbers of typists working for militaries during this period. When away from the front a soldier who knew how to type might have been able to access a typewriter, possibly the same for a sailor on a ship.
Telephones were invented in 1876. They were extensively used by technologically advanced militaries both in WW1 and WW2. By WW2 they were common enough that long distance calls by soldiers not at the front could occasionally made to there homes, but such calls were rare. There was a long distance call center set up in NYC by Bell Telephone to facilitate this for soldiers and sailors on leave. Telegrams were a bit more common, but also rare, due to their high cost. Letters were most common and were written in pen or pencil. Special ink was made so that letters could be microfilmed and the microfilm could be sent by courier to and from the front, ship, or military facility. Letters that arrived either at home or the front, or on the ship often would,actually be photographic prints of microfilm.
Yes, in the early days of fountain pens typewriters were not invented, but fountain pens were also not used in the early days, dip pens were. Steel dip pens in holders were the common writing tool, or pencils. Even after Fountain Pens were invented and eventually became practical and eventually cheaper copies were made, Pencils were more commonly used, both mechanical pencils and wood pencils. As early as the US Civil War Pencils were the tool of choice, with as example Abraham Lincoln having wrote the Gettysburg Address with a pencil. Fountain Pens only became common in the years before WW1.
In regard to when phones became common in homes, that varied by Country as well as within each country, but irrespective of that, long distance calls were expensive up until only a couple of decades ago. 40 years ago they were expensive enough that I wrote letters rather than made calls and I had a phone in my dorm room, which was a new thing. Before the 70s there was typically one phone on a dorm floor and in the 30s through early 50s a few in a phone bank near the entrance of the dorms near the check in desks,
In regard to common phones in houses, I would date that to the 1920s in the non-rural parts of the US. It was not so much a lack of technology rather a lack of money to lease said technology, yes, lease it as it was not for sale in the US initially, only leasing.
Edited by Parker51, 01 February 2020 - 14:49.