Ken, in The Universal Penman, a lot of the flourishes seem to have swells on the up stroke - is that because they are using more than one stroke to complete the letter?
Some, but not all, of the majuscules by J Champion on page 152 of the Universal Penman, are apparently shaded upwards. In fact, these letters were written backwards, so that hairline upstrokes (left to right) become shaded downstrokes (right to left) The letters W and A on this page, are typical examples of the technique.
Oh, but isn't that like cheating? Especially as I have been trying to work out for hours how they did that on an upstroke!